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Like other research activities,writing a report includes various organized and logical steps.

This article  describes basic procedures and techniques for conducting  research . Hopefully, the contents explained in the article can help you improve your skills in writing a paper.


  1. Preparation for research. 

To conduct scientific research, it is necessary to prepare all aspects of research. The preparatory steps have a special place, as they contribute to  the quality of the research work. 

  1. Selecting a topic. 

We start with the topic selection step. For a university student, choosing a scientific topic can be difficult, because a research topic needs to satisfy specific requirements: 

-The research topic must have scientific significance: supplement the theoretical content of science, or clarify some theoretical problems that have many issues… 

– The topic must be practical, reflected in satisfying an existing need in society, bringing practical value to both theory and practice. 

– The topic must suit the research group’s professional ability, material conditions, and time budget.

  1. Collecting documents. 

Once a topic has been selected, students need to have relevant documents to build a solid foundation of knowledge about the subject they are studying and provide a basis for the work based on prestigious scientific documents 

To collect valuable and reliable documents, you can refer to the following ways: 

– Searching through instructors, often teachers with long experience in research will collect a large number of valuable documents for the project. 

– Searching the university library or archives. 

– Searching articles, scientific journals, and publications related to the research topic. 

– Searching on websites hosting scientific documents such as , , . 

  1. Identifying issues related to the topic.

To have the best preparation, we must ask questions and answer the questions surrounding the topic. Those problems are: 

– Research objects: Are people, things, or phenomena that need to be considered and clarified in the research task

– Research scope: It is limited to surveying the research object within a specific time and space frame.

– Research purpose: The goal that the researcher hopes to achieve after conducting the research.

– Research content: A description of the researcher’s intended research process.

– Research method: The way, and means to solve the tasks in the research, is the most important issue that a researcher needs to understand because determining the method will determine the appropriate direction match the requirements of the study.


  1. Research implementation 

In order to achieve the stated goal, we need to carry out a multitude of work both in theory and in practice, including making assumptions, collecting and processing data, then synthesizing results and drawing essay conclusions. Starting from the first step:

  1. Making assumptions. 

A scientific hypothesis is a hypothetical, predictive model about the nature of the research object. 

Scientific work is essentially the proof of a scientific hypothesis. 

Therefore, hypothesis building is an important operation, helping us to propose a way to explore the research object, sometimes predicting the nature and movement of events and phenomena. 

A scientific hypothesis, even if it is only a theoretical assumption, still 

needs to adhere to the following rules:

The hypothesis must explain the object or phenomenon to be studied and can be tested experimentally. 

Once we have a valid hypothesis, we need to test it with real data, which leads to the next steps below.

  1. Data collection and processing. 

2.1. Collecting data

Students can find the necessary data by interviewing specific subjects, or looking up information from reputable sources (can search online or go to the agency where the source of information is available). 

ask directly).

The data  needs to satisfy the set requirements, such as having high accuracy and reliability, having useful information to form the basis of hypothesis evaluation, being closely related to the topic, etc. 

The collected data cannot be used immediately but must go through the process of screening, analysis, and processing. 

2.2. Data processing. 

In order to thoroughly process the collected data, it is necessary to first filter out accurate and useful information, and then analyze that data with special tools that combine knowledge and thinking. of the researcher, finally synthesizing and recording the results obtained 

In the process of analyzing and processing information, it is necessary to 

respect the objectivity of facts and figures, and researchers must not be subjectively imposed according to their own 


  1. Verification of research results. 

To check the results, we can choose the following ways: 

– Testing by experiment on many different scopes and subjects: this way increases the objectivity of the research results. 

– Comparing and contrasting the conclusions from other studies: although this comparison may be different when the research finds new things and new perspectives, this comparison also ensures multi

dimensionality in the research researcher’s assessment.


III. Report on research results. 

The main research report is a collection of research content in the form of a complete article, sent to the Council, to be evaluated and recognized by the Council for research results. 

A report needs to be drafted and revised many times, there is a draft for the teacher to guide and correct accordingly. A scientific report should have a moderate content but clear, full of ideas corresponding to the existing outline; the form should be presented clearly and in accordance with the requirements of the research. 

In addition, research groups need to prepare objectionable content in advance to defend their research before the Council.

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